What are the side-effects of ageing/aging (5 Side-effects)?
An Ageing side-effect is something that everybody is going to have some day or the other. A few ageing side-effects are discussed below:
Ageing Side-Effect #1. Old theory in check
Mitochondrial theory of aging proposes that mitochondrial defects associated with age are controlled by the accumulation of mutations in mitochondrial DNA. The accumulation of these mutations is connected to a short life time and early onset of aging related characteristics, such as weight and hair loss, curvature of the spine and osteoporosis.
Ageing Side-Effect #2. Mitochondrial analysis
The scientists analyzed the function of mitochondria in human fibro blast cell lines derived from young (aged from a fetus to 12 years old) and elderly (aged 80-97 years old).
Then, comparing the mitochondrial respiration and the amount of DNA damage in mitochondria of both groups, hoping that the breath was reduced and the largest DNA damage in the cells of the aged group.
While older people had even reduced breathing, there was no difference in the amount of DNA damage between the groups. This led the researchers to suggest that epigenetic regulation is that it could be responsible for the effects associated with age observed in mitochondria.
Ageing Side-Effect #3. Epigenetic regulation
Epigenetic regulation are changes such as the addition of chemical or protein structures that alter the physical structure of DNA, resulting in the activation or shutdown of genes. Unlike the mutations, these changes do not affect the DNA sequence itself.
To test the theory that epigenetic regulation is that was involved in the aging of cells, scientists reprogrammed cell lines derived from human fibroblasts of young and old to a state similar to embryonic stem cell.
These cells then become fibroblasts again, and his mitochondrial respiratory function was examined. Incredibly, the defects associated with age had been reversed – all fibroblasts were comparable breathing rates to cell line fetal fibroblasts, regardless of whether they are derived from young or old.This indicates that the aging process in the mitochondria is controlled by epigenetic regulation, not mutations.
Ageing Side-Effect #4. Playing with the right genes
The next step was to determine which genes epigenetically can be controlled, resulting in mitochondrial defects associated with age. Two genes that regulate glycine production in mitochondria, and SHMT2 CGAT, were found.
By altering the regulation of these genes, researchers noticed mitochondrial function in fibroblast cell lines – for example, within 10 days, were able to restore the respiratory function of the mitochondria participant 97 years of age.
Ageing Side-Effect #5. No future
Now that they know that epigenetic regulation controls breathing defects associated with age in human fibroblast cell lines, the researchers want to find out if the epigenetic regulation can also control aging in humans.