How to cure severe dehydration

Types of dehydration

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There are three types of dehydration:
1. Isotonic dehydration (or isosmotic): Occurs when we lose water and minerals in the same proportion.
In the cells, there must be a balance between water and minerals.
Generally this type of dehydration is caused by diarrhea.

2. hypertonic dehydration: It usually affects infants and children. Hypertonic means high levels of salt in the blood, so this type of dehydration occurs when a child loses more water than salt. For example, when the newborn has a watery diarrhea or vomits excessively.

3. hypotonic dehydration occurs when the loss of electrolytes is over water

Classification

  • The hypotonic dehydration means that the individual loses electrolytes, in particular sodium.
  • The hypertonic dehydration occurs when an individual loses mostly water.

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Additional causes of dehydration are:

  • Diarrhea – the most common cause of deaths related to dehydration. The large intestine absorbs water from digested food, diarrhea prevents this function and causes dehydration.
  • Vomiting – causes loss of fluids.
  • Perspiration – when the body temperature rises, the body releases a significant amount of water in the form of sweat. The hot and humid climate with intense physical activity can increase fluid loss in sweat.
  • Diabetes – the high level of blood sugar causes increased urination and fluid loss.
  • Frequent urination – It is typically caused by diabetes but can also be caused by alcohol and medicines diuretics, antihistamines , drugs for high blood pressure and anti-psychotics.
  • Burn – water infiltrates the skin and the body loses fluids.
  • Inability to drink fluids – the inability to drink properly is another potential cause of dehydration, for example, in the following cases:
    • Lack of availability of water ,
    • Intense nausea with or without vomiting,
    • Lack of strength to drink .

Diseases
Diseases that cause continuous or diarrhea vomiting can cause dehydration. This is because vomiting and diarrhea can cause much loss of body water. Loss of electrolytes also takes place along with that. Electrolytes are substances essential for the functioning of cellular activity and are lost along with water. Electrolytes that are found in blood, urine and other body fluids. Vomiting or diarrhea can cause serious complications such as stroke and coma.

Fever
In case of fever , the body loses fluid because perspire a lot in an attempt to lower the body temperature. Often, the fever can cause a lot of sweat. If no drink are taken to recover the liquids, you can become dehydrated.

Other causes
Elderly people have a greater chance of becoming dehydrated because:

  • They Do not drink water because they don”t feel thirsty as younger people.
  • The kidneys do not work well.
  • Choose not to drink because of the inability to control the bladder ( incontinence ).
  • They take Drugs that increase urine production.
  • They do not have enough money to feed themselves properly.
  • They have physical problems or disease which causes:
    1. Difficult to drink or to support a glass.
    2. Pain when getting up from the chair.
    3. Pain or fatigue when they go to the bathroom.
    4. Difficulty speaking or communicating with someone on the symptoms.

Dehydration in infants and young children

Babies and young children have a greater chance of becoming dehydrated because:

  • A higher percentage of body tissues is water.
  • Children have a high metabolic rate so the body uses more water.
  • a child’s kidneys do not retain water as the kidneys of an adult.
  • A child’s immune system is not fully developed, this increases the probability of having a disease that causes vomiting and diarrhea.
  • Children often do not eat or drink when they do not feel well.
  • Newborns depend on their mother for the intake of food and fluids.

Who is at risk of dehydration?

Although dehydration can occur at all ages, some people are more at risk. The categories which are at most risk are:

  • People living at high altitudes;
  • Athletes, especially those who practice endurance sports such as marathons, triathlon and cycling.
  • Dehydration can worsen performance in sport;
  • People with chronic diseases such as diabetes, kidney disease, adrenal gland disorders, alcoholism, andcystic fibrosis ;
  • Elderly, infants and children.

Dehydration symptoms

It is important to recognize the symptoms of dehydration, as soon as they occur. Untreated dehydration can cause shock. Signs and symptoms of dehydration include:

  • dizziness
  • Headache
  • Dark urine (may have a bad smell )
  • Inability to urinate
  • Decrease in weight body
  • Nose , and dry mouth
  • weakness
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Muscle cramps
  • tachycardia
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Tremor

How to know if your child is dehydrated

Symptoms that indicate whether the child is dehydrating or is becoming dehydrated are:

  • More than six to eight hours without wetting the diaper
  • Urine that appears darker in the diaper and has a stronger odor than usual
  • Lethargy (exhaustion)
  • Dry mouth and lips and sterile
  • Lack of tears when crying.

Signs that a child may be seriously dehydrated:
1. Sunken eyes
2. Cold hands and feet, with spots on the skin
3. Excessive sleepiness
4. skull sunk

Dehydration Complications

Dehydration can cause serious complications, including:

dehydration, diarrhea, drinking water, minerals

Heat
If we do not drink enough fluids when we are doing an intense physical activity and sweat a lot can developheatstroke ranging from cramps lead to a potentially fatal disease.

Cerebral edema
Sometimes when we take fluids after dehydration, the body tries to store a lot of water in the cells. This can cause excessive swelling of brain cells and the breakdown. The consequences are particularly serious in affected brain cells.

Seizures
Electrolytes such as potassium and sodium help carry nerve signals from one cell to another. If the electrolytes are balanced, common electrical messages can become confused, this can cause involuntary muscle contractions and, sometimes, loss of consciousness .

Hypovolemic shock
This is one of the most serious and sometimes dangerous complications of dehydration. It occurs when a reduction in blood volume causes a drop in blood pressure and the amount of oxygen in the body.

Renal impairment
This potentially lethal problem occurs when the kidneys are no longer able to remove excess fluid and waste from the blood.

Coma and death
if untreated, dehydration can be deadly.

Dehydrating Diagnosis

A physical examination should examine the following signs:

  • blood pressure drops when changing position on the bed lying to standing position;
  • Low blood pressure ;
  • Voltage skin, the skin can not be more elastic as before and after a biliscão becomes very slowly back to its original position (typically the skin returns to normal once);
  • rapid heartbeat (tachycardia);
  • Shock.

Among the tests performed:

1. Blood tests (to check electrolytes, especially sodium, potassium and bicarbonate levels),
2. Nitrogen urea in the blood,
3. Complete blood count ,
4. Values creatinine,
5. Specific gravity of urine.

Treatment for dehydration and natural remedies

When we are dehydrated, we lose sugar and salt with water. Drinking a rehydration solution allows to restore the balance of body fluid. The solution should contain a mixture of potassium and sodium salts, and glucose or starch. There are various products for rehydration available in pharmacies by prescription from the doctor, including solutions for infants and young children. who suspects that a person is severely dehydrated should immediately call the emergency room. You may need a hospital for treatment. In particular, babies, children and elderly people urgently need treatment if they become dehydrated. The fluids can be administered through the nose and through a nasogastric tube or using a serum into a vein (intravenous). Thus assimilate nutrients essential nutrient substances faster than solutions drinking. The best way to treat dehydration is re-hydrate the body with plenty of fluids such as water, semi-skimmed milk, diluted syrup or juice diluted fruit. A dolce drink can help replace the lost sugar and snacks snacks can help consume the salt lost. Dehydrated infants and young children should not only drink water because it dilutes the level of minerals (already low) of the body and can make the problem worse. Children need to dilute syrup, fruit juice or a special rehydration solution. If you have difficulty drink fluids due to vomiting or diarrhea, you can try taking small amounts often, to give the child a small amount of liquid may be simpler to use a spoon or syringe.

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