Many women who are looking to get pregnant have doubts about when your fertile period and when is best time to have sex seeking a pregnancy.

Unlike men, who are fertile all the time, the woman can only become pregnant during a very short period each month. In fact, each egg released by the ovary is only viable for about 24 hours. If not fertilized this short window, it degenerates and ends the fertile time of the month.

So to recognize your fertile period is essential not only to facilitate, but also to prevent a pregnancy, depending on what your desire.

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In this text we will answer the following questions about the fertile period:

  • How it works or normal ovulatory cycle?
  • When is the fertile period?
  • How to increase the chances of getting pregnant?
  • What are the best days of the menstrual cycle to have sex?
  • How to know you’re ovulating?
  • You can get pregnant and is menstruating?

This article is a simplified version of the text CYCLE MENSTRUAL | FERTILE PERIOD , more complete and further explanation of the hormonal changes governing the ovulatory cycle. In this paper we address the menstrual cycle more superficial way, giving more emphasis to the fertile period and providing tips on how to recognize ovulation.


So that you understand what is the breeding period, we will make before a brief and simple review of the female reproductive system, menstrual cycle and action of hormones on ovulation. Do not be alarmed, we will try to write simple and didactic way so that everyone can understand.

The menstrual cycle is a natural process that occurs cyclically in all fertile women. Every cycle in which ovulation occurs starts and ends with menstruation. Menstruation is a sign that shows that the ovulated woman, but the egg was not fertilized.

The first period of a woman’s life is called menarche. The latter is called menopause.

female reproductive system components

female reproductive system

By convention, the menstrual cycle (ovulation cycle) starts on the first day of menstruation and lasts on average 28 days and ending on the first day of the following menstruation. Some women have shorter periods up to 21 days, while others have longer periods, ranging up to 35 days.Women adolescents with recent menarche may have cycles of up to 45 days, once your reproductive system is still maturing.The same extension can occur with close menopausal women, when they begin to have ovarian failure signals (read: SYMPTOMS OF MENOPAUSE ).

Unlike the men who produce their sperm continuously throughout their lives, women are born with a counted number of eggs. There are about 450,000 and they are stored in the ovaries, being released, most of the time, only one per cycle. While men are fertile throughout life, women can only become pregnant between the period of years comprising menarche and menopause.

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The reproductive organs of women consist of two ovaries, two horns, one uterus and the vagina.

To facilitate understanding, let us consider the normal cycle that 28 days, beginning and always ending on the first day of menstruation.

The menstrual cycle is regulated by TSH and LH hormones produced in the pituitary gland in the brain, and the hormones estrogen and progesterone produced by the ovaries.

The entire process hormone have two functions: to cause ovulation and prepare the uterus for receiving the fetus, if the egg is fertilized.

Briefly, what happens is as follows:

1 During the first days of the cycle, the brain produces the FSH hormone that causes the maturation of the eggs, which in turn, start to produce estrogen.

2 While the eggs are becoming mature, estrogen acts in the uterus, causing your wall (endometrium) grow and become a suitable place for the implantation of the egg if it is fertilized.

3- 14 days before the next period, when at least one of ova already is mature enough, the pituitary releases the bloodstream another hormone, called LH that within 36 hours trigger ovulation.

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4 When the woman ovulates, launches its egg toward the fallopian tubes and the ovaries begin to produce a new hormone, progesterone, which will be responsible for maintaining the uterus rich in nutrients and blood circulation, waiting for the fetus.

5- If the egg is not fertilized, it degenerates and the concentration of all these hormones starts to fall. No hormones, the thick wall of the uterus does not like to stay, and she collapses. This is menstruation.Now, a new cycle starts again.


Menstruation always occurs about 14 days after ovulation. There is no way to predict when a woman will ovulate, but it is possible to know in retrospect when she ovulated. Just count 14 before the first day of menstruation. This means that if the first day of the new period was on 20, ovulation occurred around the 6th.

Again, we can not predict the next day of ovulation for sure, but women with very regular cycles, which can predict with some accuracy the day that the next period will come, can estimate the day of ovulation with reasonable efficiency. So let’s imagine that your menstrual cycle has 28 days and runs like clockwork. You predict that the next period will fall on the 24th of this month. If you’re right, it means that your ovulation occurs around day 10. Unfortunately few women who are lucky enough to have such a regular cycle that allows this kind of prediction. In most cases it is not so simple to predict the day of ovulation.

Later in this article we will explain what are the symptoms of the fertile period and how to know if a woman is ovulating.


The egg after ovulation, has a very short lifetime, about 12-24 hours. So if the woman ovulate today, the sperm has a maximum of 24 hours to find it. As the sperm has a much longer life, about 3 to 7 days, the higher chances of fertilization occur when intercourse takes place 24 to 48 hours before ovulation.Ideally, when the egg arrives in the fallopian tubes, there is already a lot of sperm waiting.

Taking into account the average life of the egg and the sperm in practice, the fertile period ends comprises, on average, 5 to 6 days before ovulation until the following day the same.

To learn how to calculate the fertile period, read: CALCULATING THE PERIOD FERTILE.


There are two ways to interpret this question. If you consider only the fertile period when the egg is viable, that is, within 24 hours following after ovulation, yes, it is possible to get pregnant having sex out of the fertile period. In fact, most pregnancies occur when women have sex one or two days before you ovulate, out therefore the fertile period according to this interpretation.

Now if you consider the fertile period of 5 or 6 days before ovulation over the next 24 hours, in this case, it is impossible to conceive out of the fertile period. For the woman becomes pregnant requires two factors: a viable egg is a lot of viable sperm. If intercourse occurs more than 24 hours after ovulation 7 days or more before, there is no way these two factors are present the same time.


Current studies have shown that sperm quality is increased when the range is 2 to 3 days between ejaculations. So for those who want to get pregnant, it is indicated coitus day in, day out, or at least every 2 days.

When it is not easy to predict the day of ovulation, we suggest to couples who want to get pregnant having sex 3 times a week, starting on the right after the end of menstruation. Thus ensures it is at least three relationships within the fertile period, with a good quality semen.

The position in which you practice sex and the presence or absence of orgasm in women did not influence the probability of conception. Likewise, keep your legs in the air or any other position at the end of sexual intercourse does not have any influence. Nothing indicates that occurs decrease the chances of fertilization if the woman resume their activities after the end of coitus. Not for lack of stunts or because your favorite sexual position you will no longer get pregnant.

The use of some vaginal lubricants such as KY and Astroglide inhibit the motility of sperm and may reduce the chances of fertilization. For couples who have difficulties conceiving, it is suggested to avoid them.

For more tips on how to increase the chances of getting pregnant, read: HOW TO BECOME PREGNANT?


There are some ways to estimate the time of ovulation. As has been said, in women with very regular menstrual cycle it is possible to predict the date of the next menstruation, forecasting, so that about 14 days before is the day of ovulation. The problem is that most women do not have as regular cycles that allow using this technique as well.

Shortly after the LH peak that triggers ovulation in women’s body temperature rises slightly, about 0.5 ° C and remained so for 10 days. Unfortunately this method is not useful in practice. The temperature measurement is a good method to learn retrospectively if the woman ovulated recently, but this rise usually occurs late in relation to ovulation, not intended to indicate the right time of intercourse. As the ovum has a very short life when it identifies a temperature rise, it is practically no longer viable.

Another way to search is through ovulation vaginal mucus. A few days before ovulation, the mucus produced by the uterus to change, becoming thicker and more elastic. This mucus is called the fertile mucus, since it favors the mobility of sperm into the uterus and fallopian tubes.

Many women can detect this change in the characteristics of their mucus, being an indication that ovulation is next to happen.

Some women experience pain at the time of ovulation. The rupture of the ovarian follicle to release the egg, may cause a slight irritation of the peritoneum, causing pain in the side where the ovary that ovulated. This syndrome is called mittelschmerz , which means pain means (cycle) in German.

In practice, the simplest way to identify the fertile period is the dose of LH, since this rises 36 hours before ovulation. There are urine tests, which can be purchased in pharmacies, for detection of the LH preovulatory peak. It should be noted, however, that there are false positives.

If you have trouble getting pregnant, it is best that this process of ovulation monitoring is done by a doctor at a fertility consultation. Through ultrasound the doctor can directly view your ovaries and find out if there are any mature follicle, ready to rupture and release an egg. The doctor may also stimulate ovulation with drugs, making the fairly predictable fertile period.


It is possible, but it is very unusual. Rare cases occur in women with ovulatory cycles short and long menstrual period. In fact, no one gets pregnant during menstruation, what can happen is sexual intercourse occur during menstruation and sperm survive long enough to find an egg.

For example, imagine that a woman on the 7th day of menstruation, ie 7-day cycle, already with very little loss of blood, decides to have unprotected sex thinking no danger still menstruating. If this woman has very short ovulatory cycles it can ovulate a few days after the onset of menstruation. As the sperm can survive in the female reproductive system up to 5 to 7 days, there is a chance of this find an egg and fertilize it. Sexual intercourse occurred during menstruation, but fertilization was given a few days later.

However, there are still other issues that complicate pregnancy during menstruation. First, the vaginal environment full of menstrual blood is unfriendly to sperm, reducing their viability. Second, the uterus just flake off, not being ready to receive a fertilized egg, decreasing the chances of progression of pregnancy.

So when you ask: Can pregnant and is menstruating? The answer is yes, is possible, but it is unlikely that a sexual relationship occurred during menstruation results in a pregnancy.

If you want more information on the subject: getting pregnant during menstruation, read the following article: CAN BECOME PREGNANT BEING menstruating? .

If you are in doubt about the possibility of being pregnant, read: CAN I BE PREGNANT? .

If you want to get pregnant and is having difficulties, we have a range of articles on the site that can help you better understand your situation. Follow the links throughout this page and go looking for the topics that interest you most.



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